Big data to analyze the mystery of Beethoven’s metronome

Data science and physics research at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and UNED analyzed a centuries-old controversy over Beethoven’s annotations about the tempo (the playing speed) of his works, which is considered to be too fast based on these marks. In this study, published in the PLOS ONE journal, it is noted that this deviation could be explained by the composer reading the metronome incorrectly when using it to measure the beat of his symphonies.

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